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This study sets out to identify the social representation of information technology governance (ITG) according to information technology (IT) professionals. Empirical data were collected via online questionnaires answered by IT professionals, being subsequently analyzed by means of the social representation theory (SRT) operationalized via the words evocation technique and the four quadrants of the Vergès’ approach. As a result, it was identified that the central nucleus of the social representation of ITG comprises the following expressions: control, management, strategy, alignment, and planning. A cognitive dissonance between the definition of ITG according to the extant literature and the understanding of ITG according to IT professionals is then revealed. This fact can contribute to the total or partial failure of ITG initiatives, as the benefits promised in the existing literature or derived from the implementation of good practices in this domain are based on an ITG notion that is not fully understood by IT professionals. Therefore, recommendations are presented to align ITG theory with the perception of IT professionals on the subject.
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