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This article analyzes the differences between public and private health services regarding infrastructure and human resources at the state (subnational) and macro-regional levels in Brazil. The research collected monthly data on inpatient beds and the number of nurses, physiotherapists, and doctors from Brazilian states for 2020. Indicators were created following quarterly changes and comparing the actions of public and private healthcare entities. Variations were analyzed using temporal graphs based on means and standard deviation. The findings suggest: (1) exponential growth in health care infrastructure and human resources led by public sector investment in the second quarter, followed by a slowdown; (2) a more significant variation in the acceleration and deceleration of the public sector response in the North of Brazil and the states of Maranhão, Rio Grande do Norte, and the Federal District; (3) the public sector was the primary response mechanism to the pandemic considering the variations throughout the year. The study concludes that the government was the leading actor in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil in 2020, pointing out that responses were uneven in the states.
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